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Cooling Tower-Heating Flow Schematic
Scaling: Water formed deposits result from naturally occurring minerals precipitating from water to form scale. The most common scales are calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate and silica or silicates. Scale buildup on surfaces can be extremely hard and difficult to remove. Scaling will drastically reduce heat transfer capacity and system energy efficiency
Corrosion: Cooling Systems are exposed to many types of corrosion, from general electrochemical corrosion, to pitting caused by deposits, electrolysis, or microorganisms. Corrosion can reduce the life-span of equipment by years, requiring expensive replacement. It can lead to costly equipment repairs and production downtime. Corrosion related deposits lead to reduced capacity and wasted energy because of heat transfer efficiency losses.
Fouling: Fouling occurs when solid materials form or contribute to the formation of deposit on equipment surfaces. They are introduced to the system as suspended solids and may enter by the makeup water, from corrosion by products, or as airborne materials. Examples include mud, sand, silt, clay oils, debris, organics, microbes, etc. These materials adhere to heat transfer surfaces and reduce heat transfer and water flow.
Microbiological Contamination: Microbial problems associated with industrial cooling water systems are caused by algae, fungi, and bacteria. They cause plugging, fouling, corrosion, and destruction of wooden cooling tower components. Many different bacteria species may exist in cooling water systems. Some of the problems caused include severe bacterial slimes and fouling, sulfuric acid, underdeposit corrosion and health hazards.
Boiler Water-Steam Flow Schematic
Scaling: As water is heated and converted into steam, contaminants brought into a boiler with makeup water are left behind. The boiler functions as a distillation unit, taking pure water out as steam, and leaving behind concentrated minerals and other contaminants in the boiler Scale forms as a result of the precipitation of normally soluble solids that become insoluble as temperature increases. Some examples of boiler scale are calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, and calcium silicate.
Corrosion is a general term that indicates the conversion of a metal into a soluble compound. In the case of boiler metal, corrosion is the conversion of steel into rust In a boiler, two types of corrosion are prevalent: 1.) Oxygen pitting corrosion, seen on the tubes and in the pre-boiler section. 2.) Low pH corrosion, seen in the condensate return system. Corrosion of either type can lead to failure of critical parts of the boiler system, deposition of corrosion products in critical heat exchange areas, and overall efficiency loss.
Carryover is caused by either priming or foaming.
Priming is the sudden violent eruption of boiler water, which is carried along with steam out of the boiler, usually caused by mechanical conditions. Priming can cause deposits and around the main steam header valve in a short period of time. Foaming causes carryover by forming a stable froth on the boiler water, which is then carded out with the steam. Over a period of time, deposits due to foaming can completely plug a steam or condensate line.
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Environmental Services, Inc.
200 Main Street, Suite E Glen Gardner, NJ 08826-3616
Phone: 888-668-9259 Fax 908-537-1114
Local Phone: 908-537-1115
E-Mail: The CEO, Dr. Arthur C. Groves III, PhD.
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